Bio-medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998 were notified by the Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. In exercise of the powers conferred by Section 6, 8 and 25 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (29 of 1986), and in supersession of the Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 and further amendments made thereof, the Central Government vide G.S.R. 343(E) dated 28 the March, 2016 published the Bio-medical Waste Management Rules, 2016. These rules apply to all persons who generate, collect, receive, store, transport, treat, dispose, or handle bio medical waste in any form including hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, dispensaries, veterinary institutions, animal houses, pathological laboratories, blood banks, ayush hospitals, clinical establishments, research or educational institutions, health camps, medical or surgical camps, vaccination camps, blood donation camps, first aid rooms of schools, forensic laboratories and research labs.
The prescribed authority for enforcement of the provisions of these rules in respect of all the health care facilities located in any State/Union Territory is the respective State Pollution Control Board (SPCB)/ Pollution Control Committee (PCC) and in case of health care establishments of the Armed Forces under the Ministry of Defence shall be the Director General, Armed Forces Medical Services (DGAFMS). These rules stipulate duties of the Occupier or Operator of a Common Bio-medical Waste Treatment Facility as well as the identified authorities. According to these rules, every occupier or operator handling bio-medical waste, irrespective of the quantity is required to obtain authorization from the respective prescribed authority i.e. State Pollution Control Board and Pollution Control Committee, as the case may be. These rules consist of modified four categories of bio medical waste.
|category||Type of waste||Color and type of container||Treatment|
|Yellow||Human anatomical waste, discarded medicines, microbiology, bio technology and other laboratory waste etc||Yellow colored non chlorinated plastic bags||Incineration or Plasma Pyrolysis or deep burial|
|Red||Contaminated waste (recyclable) *after cutting||Red colored non chlorinated plastic bags||Autoclaving or micro-waving|
|white||Waste sharps including metals||White colored puncture proof container||Autoclaving or Dry Heat Sterilization followed by shredding or mutilation|